1-3. The Deity of the Holy Spirit
Messianic Evangelical Proto-Trinitarians are pretty well in complete agreement with classical Trinitarians from the Protestant, Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches when it comes to the biblical doctrine of the Father and the Son. Where we differ a little is in the doctrine of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit). The Protestants and Catholics differ with the Eastern Orthodox Church over the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) too (e.g. the 'Filioque Controversy') and we are closer to the Eastern Orthodox in this regard than the Western Churches. Nevertheless there is, in reality, very little difference between us as we all accept the Deity of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit).
To lie to the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is to lie to Elohim (God) (Acts 5:3-4). The linking of the Ruach (Spirit) with the Master Yah'shua (Jesus) and the Father in such places as 1 Corinthians 12:4-6 and 2 Corinthians 13:14 would be near blasphemy if 'He' were not 'Himself' Elohim (God). The Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is also personal. Thus 'He' wills (Acts 13:2; 1 Corinthians 12:11); 'He' understands (Romans 8:27); 'He' may be grieved (Ephesians 4:30). Such terms would be meaningless if applied solely to an impersonal influence or power.
We do not have nearly as much data on the Ruach haQodesh's (Holy Spirit's) personality as we do of Messiah (Christ), as we would expect of an invisible Being. There are two problems with the classical Trinitarian fomulation on the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit):
Classical Trinitarianism acknowledges only that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit...or Holy Ghost) is personal and masculine which, in the view of NCAY is a total misrepresentation of the Bible witness. We therefore consider classical Trinitarianism to be defective in its doctrine of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit). Since the Bible does not give a precise formulation of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit), neither do we at this basic level. And since the term 'Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit)' is often used interchangeably with both the Father and the Son, it is not possible to arrive at any definite formulation based on the biblical data alone. As the data stands, it is possible to arrive at several conclusions. It is here that further revelation is needed.
- a. The Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is described in both Testaments as both personal and impersonal;
- b. The Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is exclusively described in neuter terms in the Greek New Testament, in exclusively feminine terms in the Hebrew Old Testament, but as male and neuter terms in nearly all our English translations.
Part of the problem we have with the Messianic Scriptures (New Testament) is that the one used by the Western Churches is a Greek translation of the original Hebrew, a language evolved within a pagan context as opposed to the Hebrew of the Tanakh (Old Testament) which was, we believe, the original divine language and which evolved within the context of a divine theocracy (Israel). This means, in our opinion, that Hebrew is more precise and inspired than Greek. Moreover, we have good reason to believe that most, if not all, the Messianic Scriptures (New Testament) were originally written in Hebrew and subsequently translated into Greek. Therefore in terms of defining the gender of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit), Messianic Evangelicals are more disposed to the Hebrew Old and New Testament witness of the Bible which overwhelmingly reveals the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) to be feminine.
Recent studies of the original Hebrew or Aramaic New Testament, before it was translated into Greek, show conclusively that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is feminine in both Old and New Testaments. James S. Trimm, Hebrew and Aramaic New Testament scholar writes:
Trimm is of the view that whilst the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is 'spiritually female', She is 'sexually neuter'. Our view is that She is both spiritually and sexually female.
One problem that presents itself in translating the New Testament from Hebrew and Aramaic into English is that of the gender of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit). English is very different from Hebrew and Aramaic. To begin with, English has three genders, masculine, feminine and neuter (i.e. he, she and it). Hebrew and Aramaic have no neuter gender. In Hebrew and Aramaic everything is either a "he" or a "she" and nothing is an "it". Also gender plays a much more important role in Hebrew and in Aramaic than in English. In English gender is usually only an issue when dealing with pronouns. But in Hebrew and Aramaic nouns and verbs are also maculine or feminine. And while there are no true adjectives in Hebrew (nouns are also used as adjectives), noun modifiers must agree in gender with the noun. Now the Hebrew word RUACH (Aramaic RUCHA) is gramatically feminine as is the phrase Ruach haQodesh. This is matched by the rôle of the Ruach haQodesh as "comforter" (Jn.14-16) and the identifier of the "comforter" with YHWH acting as a "mother" (Is.66:13).
Now in English the Ruach (Soirit) is often referred to as "he" or "it" as also in the Greek Messianic Scriptures (New Testament). However this seems very odd indeed to the Semitic mind.
Now it is very clear that the gender of the RUACH (Spirit) has been revised in many passages of the Aramaic to agree with the Hellenistic concept of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) as being either a "he" or an "it". Thus the pronouns used for the Ruach haQodesh in Jn.14-16 in the Peshitta are all masculine. However, the hand of revision is very clear. For example while both the Peshitta and Old Syriac have "he" in Jn.16:8 the Old Syriac has "she" just a few verses further down in 16:13 while the Peshitta has "he".
Moreover there are many passages in which the Peshitta itself pairs the Ruach haQodesh with feminine verbs and/or feminine modifiers. Mk.1:10; Jn.1:32-33; 6:63; 7:39; Acts 8:29,39; 16:17; Rom.8:9-11,16,26a,26b; 1 Cor.3:16; 1 Tim.4:1; 1 Pet.1:11; 4:14 and 1 Jn.5:6. In fact the Peshitta Aramaic of Rom.8:16 opens with:
"And She the Ruach gives testimony ..."
(James S. Trimm, Hebraic-Roots Version "New Testament", 2001, SANJ, Hurst, Texas, pp.xxxiii-xxxiv)
Messianic Evangelicals believe that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is a female Personage, in the same way that Yah'shua (Jesus) is a male Personage, and I shall now give other biblical reasons for believing so.
Karen Vaughan, reviewing the book Sophia in the Biblical Tradition (Harper and Row; 1986) by Susan Cady, Marian Ronan and Hal Taussig, writes : "Sophia, the Greek translation of the Hebrew Hochmah is the feminine personification of Wisdom in the Pentateuch (first five books of the Tanakh/Old Testament). She is neither a goddess nor a new age creation of feminist theologians. She was a real biblical person with more material on her in the Tanakh (Old Testament...with Apocrypha) than anyone in the scriptures, except Elohim (God), Job, Moses and David...
"One reason we little consider Sophia, even in readings of the Tanakh (Old Testament), is that English translations usually translate the feminine "Sophia" into the abstract "Wisdom". Although the Greek and Hebrew words were fully feminine, the English is not. The fullest development of her is in the so-called "Wisdom Books" of the apocryphia in the Greek Pentateuch that were canonized into Christian Scripture and are still used by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches. Sophia dominates the first nine chapters of Proverbs and is found in both the Old and New Testaments.
"In the Hebrew tradition, Sophia was considered to have been with Elohim (God) from the beginning of Creation. In Proverbs 8:27-51, Sophia says:
"Sophia, in the biblical creation was not a god, but was a Divine Being. It is not clear that she was uncreated like Yah'shua (Jesus): the word used to refer to her creation also means "acquired" by Elohim (God). Proverbs 8:22 - "Yahweh created me [acquired me] (Sophia) when Yahweh's purpose first unfolded." Ecclesiasticus 1:14 - "before all things, Sophia was created." She serves at the heart of the creative process, as Wisdom and as Teacher who was sent by Yahweh to save humanity. The book of Wisdom speaks to her divinity (7:25-26):
When Yahweh set the heavens in place, I was present,
When Yahweh drew a ring on the surface of the deep,
When Yahweh fixed the clouds above,
When Yahweh fixed fast the wells of the deep,
when Yahweh assigned the sea its limits-
and the waters will not invade the land,
when Yahweh established the foundations of the earth,
I was by Yahweh's side, a master craftswoman,
delighting Yahweh day after day,
ever at play by Yahweh's side,
at play everywhere in Yahweh's domain,
delighting to be with the children of humanity.
Let me summarise what the Bible teaches about Sophia:
She is the breath of Yahweh's power and a stream of pure glory of the Almighty.
This is why nothing polluted enters her.
For she mirrors Yahweh's energy completely, and she images Yahweh's goodness."
Do we have any indications in the Bible of a similar creation process? We do. If we look at the story of Eve's creation from Adam we find a remarkable parallel. Eve was created out of Adam in the same way that Sophia was created out of Yahweh. Eve was created to be a helpmeet and co-ruler with Adam in the same way as Sophia was created by Yahweh from Himself to be a helpmeet and co-creator. We may therefore say that in the same way as Eve is the mother of the human race, that Sophia is the mother of Creation as a Heavenly Mother along with Yahweh our Heavenly Father.
- (a) She is a created Being;
- (b) She is Divine
So I repeat: the creation of Eve from Adam as a helpmeet and companion is a simulitude of the creation of Sophia (or Hochmah) from Yahweh for similar reasons.
Are Messianic Evangelicals feminists or New Age? Abolutely not. We are merely acknowledging what the Bible teaches. We absolutely reject feminism and New Age paganism. The purpose of feminism is antithetical to biblical Christianity/Messianism and the New Age worships a female deity in place of the Father - and whilst they assert this is "Sophia" it is, in fact, a demon counterfeit which goes under many names (e.g. "Maia"). We must also remember that in contradistintion to Yah'shua the Messiah (Jesus Christ), who was uncreated and has always been Elohim (God), Sophia is a special creation.
Our assertion that the Elohim/Godhead contains Female Deity does not undermine Patriarchy - it does, however, undermine gentile patriarchy which has virtually excluded the female altogether, except in the apostate Catholic Church where they have blasphemously elevated a mortal human being, the Virgin Mary, as the "Mother of God", many even claiming she is "co-redemptrix", or co-saviour with Christ. We affirm the biblical doctrine most strongly, namely, that there is only one Saviour and Deliverer, Yah'shua (Jesus). Thus Helenic (Greek-inspired) Christianity has removed the Divine Female from the original emunah (faith) of the Hebrews.
What does this mean for us as Christians/Messianics? It means a deep respect for the feminine as must of necessity be as we consider the subject further.
The ancient Hebrews knew of Sophia as SHEKINAH which literally means, "the Divine Presence". She was also known by the Israelites as the "Sabbath Queen". Her name comes from the Hebrew word shakhan which means "to dwell".
The Elohim/Godhead consists of Father, Son and Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit), the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) being the Shekinah or the Heavenly Mother. That the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit), also known as Wisdom, is female is shown by the plethora of scriptures on her.
It is through the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) that Elohim (God) the Father, Yahweh, communicates to us invisibly. Without Her we would have no access. However, she is not to be worshipped because she is not the head - Yahweh is the Head. Moreover, in terms of authority, she lies in Third place after Messiah who, though He is her "son" by the flesh through the Virgin Mary, is not her Son by the Spirit, for Messiah is uncreated. Yah'shua (Jesus) commanded us in the master's/Lord's Prayer to only pray to the Father and did not include the Mother who, inspite of Her high position, is a Created Being. Neveretheless She is honoured and regarded so highly that Yah'shua (Jesus) said that anyone who blasphemed Him could be forgiven but the sin against the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) was unforgivable.
Does not wisdom call out? Does not understanding raise her voice? On the heights along the way, where the paths meet, she takes her stand; beside the gates leading into the city, at the entrances, she cries aloud: 'To you, O men, I call out; I raise my voice to all mankind. You who are simple, gain prudence; you who are foolish, gain understanding. Listen, for I have worthy things to say; I open my lips to speak what is right. My mouth speaks what is true, for my lips detest wickedness. All the words of my mouth are just; none of them is crooked or perverse. To the discerning all of them are right; they are faultless to those who have knowledge'" (Proverbs 8:1-9).
What kind of a Being is the Shekinah?
If Shekinah is the personification of Wisdom then it is quite possible that someone else is the personification of Prudence with whom She "dwells". But that is another story altogether!
"I, wisdom, dwell together with prudence; I possess knowledge and discretion. To fear Yahweh is to hate evil; I hate pride and arrogance, evil behavior and perverse speech. Counsel and sound judgment are mine; I have understanding and power." (Proverbs 8:12-14)
The phrase, "fear of Yahweh," which we often find in the Scriptures, does not mean fright or terror. It means a good relationship with Elohim (God) based upon reverence and respect. In the passage above the fear of Yahweh refers to righteous living. If we listen to the counsel of the Inner Voice that seeks to guide us, we hear the Father's Living Davar (Word) of Emet (Truth) and learn to live in accordance with His plan.
So we see that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) identifies Herself in Scripture as "Wisdom." When we listen to the Voice of Wisdom,
We have already seen how the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) identifies Herself as Wisdom, but do the scriptures identify Wisdom with the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit)? They do:
- We make wise and prudent decisions.
- We possess knowledge and act discreetly.
- We release false pride and arrogance which leads to error.
- When we heed Her counsel, we gain understanding and power because we gain access to Yah'shua (Jesus). Then we shall know the Emet (Truth), and the Emet (Truth) shall make us free.
"I love those who love me, and those who seek me find me. With me are riches and honour, enduring wealth and prosperity. My fruit is better than fine gold; what I yield surpasses choice silver. I walk in the way of righteousness, along the paths of justice, bestowing wealth on those who love me and making their treasuries full". (Proverbs 8:17-21)
Who was with Yahweh before the world began?
"Yahweh brought me forth as the first of His works, before His deeds of old; I was appointed from eternity, from the beginning, before the world began. When there were no oceans, I was given birth, when there were no springs abounding with water; before the mountains were settled in place, before the hills, I was given birth, before He made the earth or its fields or any of the dust of the world. I was there when He set the heavens in place, when He marked out the horizon on the face of the deep, when He established the clouds above and fixed securely the fountains of the deep, when He gave the sea its boundary so the waters would not overstep Hsis command, and when He marked out the foundations of the earth. Then I was the crafts[wo]man at His side. I was filled with delight day after day, rejoicing always in His presence, rejoicing in His whole world and delighting in mankind." (Proverbs 8:22-31)
We learn further that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is a Divine Teacher or Instructor which I can see might upset some men with darkened minds who, through misreading the scriptures, do not even allow their women to open their mouths in Assembly or Church:
"In the beginning Elohim (God) created the heavens and the earth. Now the earth was formless and empty, darkness was over the surface of the deep, and the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God) was hovering over the waters." (Genesis 1:1-2)
"Then Elohim (God) said, 'Let us make man in our image, in our likeness...' So Elohim (God) created man in his own image, in the image of Elohim (God) He created him; male and female He created them." (Genesis 1:26-27)
"By wisdom Yahweh laid the earth's foundations, by understanding He set the heavens in place." (Proverbs 3:19)
Prior to the birth of Christ the Shekinah/Ruach haQodesh/Holy Spirit was the divine intercessor with the Father. The Scriptures also make plain in the light of the above that women have leadership rôles in the Assemblies of Yahweh. In saying this, though, I am not advocating identical leadership rôles but parallel ones.
"But it is the ruach (spirit) in a man, the breath of the Almighty, that gives him understanding" (Job 32:8).
"She speaks with wisdom, and faithful instruction is on Her tongue" (Proverbs 31:26).
"Now then, my sons, listen to me; blessed are those who keep my ways. Listen to my instruction and be wise; do not ignore it. Blessed is the man who listens to me, watching daily at my doors, waiting at my doorway. For whoever finds me finds chayim (life) and receives favour from Yahweh. But whoever fails to find me harms himself; all who hate me love death" (Proverbs 8:32-36).
"For wisdom will enter your heart, and knowledge will be pleasant to your soul" (Proverbs 2:10).
"Get wisdom, get understanding; do not forget my devarim (words) or swerve from them. Do not forsake wisdom, and she will protect you; love her, and she will watch over you. Wisdom is supreme; therefore get wisdom. Though it cost all you have, get understanding" (Proverbs 4: 5-7).
This is important and if we don't strictly adhere to it we will end up as the feminists in the liberal churches whose work has been so destructive of true patriarchy leading to serious compromises with homosexuality and lesbianism (amongst other problems). Accordingly there are different priesthood orders for men and women in the true Assemblies of Yahweh.
Yet us first see the characteristics of the Ruach haQodesh's (Holy Spirit's) leadership rôle in the Elohim/Godhead for this will give us some idea of true women's priesthood rôles here in the earthly Messianic Community (Church). The following summary is courtesy of Evan Randolph:
1. WISDOM IS VERY POWERFUL -
- "for she is the breath of the power of Elohim (God)" (Wisdom 7:25,Septuagint, LXX).
- "For Elohim (God) loveth none but him that dwelleth with wisdom" (Wisdom 7:28, LXX).
- "wisdom reacheth from one end to another, mightily; and sweetly doth she order all things" (Wisdom 8:1, LXX).
- "Yahweh of all things himself loved her. For she is privy to the mysteries of the knowledge of Elohim (God), and a lover of His works" (Wisdom 8:2, LXX).
2. WISDOM WAS INVOLVED IN CREATION-
- "Elohim (God) by wisdom founded the earth" (Proverbs 3:19, LXX).
- "And wisdom was with Thee: which knoweth Thy works, and was present when Thou madest the world" (Wisdom 9:9, LXX).
- "And Elohim (God) said, Let us make man according to our image (plural) and likeness...And Elohim (God) made man, according to the image of Elohim (God), He made him, male and female He made them" (Genesis I:25,27, LXX).
3. WISDOM PROVIDES SALVATION-
- "For so the ways of them which lived on the earth were reformed, and men were taught the things that are pleasing unto Thee, and were saved through wisdom" (Wisdom 9:18, LXX).
4. WISDOM PROVIDES SANCTIFICATION-
- "and in all the ages entering into men's souls, she maketh them friends of Elohim (God), and veni'im (prophets)" (Wisdom 7:27, LXX).
5. WISDOM PROVIDES RECREATION -
- "she maketh all things new" (Wisdom 7:7, LXX).
6. WISDOM PROVIDES ETERNAL LIFE-
- "moreover by means of her I shall obtain immortality" (Wisdom 8:13, LXX).
- "how that to be allied unto wisdom is immortality" (Wisdom 8:17, LXX).
7. WISDOM PROVIDES FULFILLMENT-
- "honour Wisdom, that ye may reign for evermore" (Wisdom 7:21, LXX).
- "All good things together came to me with her, and innumerable riches in her hands. And I rejoiced in them all, because Wisdom goeth before them: and I knew not that she was the mother of them" (Wisdom 7:11-12, LXX).
- "If riches be a possession to be desired in this life; what is richer than wisdom, that worketh all things?" (Wisdom 8:5, LXX).
- "and in the works of her hands are infinite riches" (Wisdom 8:18, LXX).
- "They that serve her shall minister to the Qadosh (Holy, Set-Apart) One: and them that love her Yahweh doth love -- and he that attendeth unto her shall dwell securely" (Eccl.4:14-15, LXX).
- "Behold with your eyes, how that I have had but little labour, and have gotten unto me much rest. Get learning with a great sum of money, and get much gold by her" (Eccl.51:27, LXX).
8. WISDOM PROVIDES PROTECTION-
- "But wisdom delivered from pain those that attended upon her" (Wisdom 10:9, LXX).
- "She defended him from his enemies, and kept him safe from those that lay in wait" (Wisdom 10:12, LXX).
- "Guided them in a marvelous way, and was unto them for a cover by day, and a light of stars in the night season; brought them through the Red sea, and led them through much water: but she drowned their enemies, and cast them up out of the bottom of the deep" (Wisdom 10:17-19, LXX).
9. WE SHOULD SING THE PRAISES OF WISDOM -
- "And refrain not to speak, when there is occasion to do good, and hide not thy wisdom in her beauty. For by speech wisdom shall be known" (Eccl.4:23-24, LXX).
- "I learned diligently, and do communicate her liberally: I do not hide her riches. For she is a treasure unto men that never faileth" (Wisdom 7:12-14, LXX).
10. WISDOM - RUACH HA-QODESH (HOLY SPIRIT) GAVE YAH'SHUA (JESUS) POWER:
- "The Ruach (Spirit) of Yahweh shall rest upon him, a ruach (spirit) of wisdom and understanding, a ruach (spirit) of counsel and power, a ruach (spirit) of knowledge and the fear of Yahweh" (Isaiah 11:1-2, NEB). (ref Yah'shua/Jesus) "he is the power of Elohim (God) and the wisdom of Elohim (God)" (1 Corinthians 1:24, NEB).
- "You are in Messiah Yah'shua (Jesus) by Elohim's (God's) act, for Elohim (God) has made Him our wisdom..." (1 Corinthians 1:30, NEB).
11. YAH'SHUA (JESUS) SAID THE RUACH HA-QOGESH (HOLY SPIRIT) WILL TEACH US:
- "... your advocate, the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit), whom the Father will send in My Name, will teach you everything, and will call to mind all that I have told you..." (John 14:26, NEB).
- "..you will receive power when the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) comes upon you..." (Acts 1:8, NEB).
12. DO NOT SPEAK AGAINST THE RUACH (SPIRIT):
- "Any man who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven; but if anyone speaks against the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit), for him there is no forgiveness, either in this age or in the age to come" (Matthew 12:32, NEB).
- "For into a malicious soul wisdom shall not enter: nor dwell in the body that is subject unto sin. For the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) of discipline will flee deceit,.... For wisdom is a loving ruach (spirit); and will not acquit a blasphemer of his words: ... For the Ruach (Spirit) of Yahweh filleth the world: ..." (Wisdom 1:4-7, LXX).
13. WISDOM IS NOT FOR ALL
- "She is with all flesh according to His gift, and He hath given her to them that love Him" (Eccl.1:10, LXX).
- "She is very unpleasant to the unlearned: he that is without understanding will not remain with her. She will lie upon him as a mighty stone of trial; and he will cast her from him ere it be long. For wisdom is according to her name, and she is not manifest unto many" (Eccles.7:20-22, LXX).
- "But foolish men shall not attain her, and sinners shall not see her. For she is far from pride, and men that are liars cannot remember her" (Eccles.17:7, LXX).
There is one other factor in the equation of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) that we must not forget. We have already seen that Elohim (God) is both echad (one) and three. The unity of the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is also stressed throughout the Bible. However, we are also told that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is SEVEN, something that the formulators of the classical Trinitarian doctrine entirely missed:
"And I beheld, and, lo, in the midst of the throne and of the four beasts, and in the midst of the elders, stood a Lamb as it had been slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven Ruachot (Spirits) of Elohim (God) sent forth into all the earth" (Rev.5:6, KJV).
"And out of the throne proceeded lightnings and thunderings and voices: and there were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven Ruachot (Spirits) of Elohim (God)" (Rev.4:5, KJV).
"And unto the angel of the assembly (church) in Sardis write; These things saith he that hath the seven Ruachot (Spirits) of Elohim (God), and the seven stars; I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest, and art dead" (Rev.3:1, KJV).
"John to the seven assemblies (churches) which are in Asia: Grace be unto you, and shalom (peace), from Him which is, and which was, and which is to come; and from the seven Ruachot (Spirits) which are before his throne" (Rev.1:4, KJV).
Most commentators have tried to explain these passages away by saying that the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God) is seven-fold without explaining exactly what that means. And whilst that is certainly one sense of the meaning, there can be no doubt that we are dealing - as in the Elohim/Godhead sense generally - both seven influences as well as seven Personages behind the influences.
What this means is that the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) is Seven-in-One just as the Elohim/Godhead is Three-in-One.
If these things are true, then clearly the classical formulation of the Trinity is inadequate in defining the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit). This leads us to another area of difficulty, namely, the question of Subordinationism.
This page was created on 17 July 1999
Last updated on 16 February 2017
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