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Month 11:08, Week 1:7 (Shibi'i/Sukkot), Year:Day 5939:303 AM
2Exodus 1/40
Gregorian Calendar: Tuesday 27 January 2015
A Bountiful Harvest
Godly Fear, Self-Discipline & Prayer

      "For Elohim (God) did not give us a spirit of cowardice, but rather a spirit of power and of ahavah (love) and of self-discipline" (2 Tim.1:7, NRSV).


    Shabbat shalom kol beit Yisra'el and may the grace of our Master Yah'shua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) be with you all.

    Lapsing into Spiritual Idleness

    I was led, I believe, to today's passage because of a need we all have at certain times of our life, and most certainly it is for those of us who, for whatever reason, may lapse into spiritual idleness. It is particularly important at this dangerous time in the world where believers must be alert and sharply tuned into the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit).

    No Spirit of Fear, Cowardness or Idleness

    We are reminded first of all what Yahweh has not given those who are regenerated, through emunah (faith) in Messiah, namely a "spirit of cowardice" as the New Revised Standard Version (NRSV) puts it (also MRCV), or a "spirit of timidity" as the majority of English versions render it (KJV, RSV, NIV, NKJV, NASB, JNT/CJB, etc.). Personally I prefer the sense of the original Aramaic - "Elohim (God) has not given us a spirit of fear..." (AENT, HRV, RSTNE, APNT). What that means is that Yahweh has not given us the spirit of the fear of man - He has not given us the spirit of fearing things in daily life but only the Fear of Yahweh Himself. And in the previous epistle to Timothy, Paul warns most emphatically:

      "If there be anyone who teaches a different doctrine and does not agree to the foundational Devarim (Words) of our Master Yah'shua the Messiah (Jesus Christ) and to the doctrine of the Fear of Elohim (God), he is one that exalts himself while he knows nothing; and he languishes in the search and inquiry about devarim (words) from which come envy and contention and railing and evil suspicions and the constant arguing of men whose minds are corrupt and devoid of the emet (truth), and who suppose that gain is without Elohim (God). But great is our gain which is the Fear of Elohim (God), with the use of our competence" (1 Tim.6:3-6, AENT).

    The Messiah Was Endowed with a Spirit of Fear

    This emet (truth) is especially important when you recall what was prophetically said of the Messiah through the prophet Isaiah:

      "There shall come forth a Rod from the stem of Jesse, and a Branch shall grow out of his roots. The Spirit of Yahweh shall rest upon Him, the Spirit of hochmah (wisdom) and binah (understanding), the Spirit of counsel and might, the Spirit of daat (knowledge) and of the yireh (fear) of Yahweh. His delight is in the yireh (fear) of Yahweh, and He shall not judge by the sight of His eyes, nor decide by the hearing of His ears..." (Isa.11:1-3, NKJV).

    The Seven Spirits Resting on Yah'shua

    This is rather remarkable, is it not? There are seven ruachot or spirits that are described as being characteristic of the Messiah, and therefore of those who are filled with His Ruach (Spirit) upon being regenerated - the ruachot (spirits) of:

    • 1. Yahweh;
    • 2. Wisdom;
    • 3. Understanding;
    • 4. Counsel;
    • 5. Might (or power);
    • 6. Knowledge; and
    • 7. The Fear of Yahweh.

    The Spirit of Yahweh Contains the Fear of Yahweh

    This should remind us of the seven-armed Menorah which on one level symbolises perfection and completion. The centre pillar is the Spirit of Yahweh with six other attributes forming the branches, namely, wisdom, understanding, counsel, might or power, knowledge and the fear of Yahweh. This qodesh (holy, set-apart) fear is not, moreover, merely love and respect, as most would prefer it to mean, and is not in any case what the Hebrew word yerah (which we translate as "fear") means. This word conveys the sense of awesomeness mingled with terror! Alone it would be awful, but Paul reminds us that it is linked to Yahweh's power, Yahweh's ahavah (love) and self-discipline also from Yahweh, which is the very opposite of the fear of man that we are told has no part of the Ruach Elohim (Spirit of God). This "fear of Elohim (God)" cannot, then, be taught by me or anyone else. Remember the rebuke of Yahweh to apostate Israel that was uttered through Isaiah the navi (prophet) 18 chapters on:

      "Inasmuch as these people draw near with their mouths and honour Me with their lips, but have removed their hearts far from Me, and their fear toward Me is taught by the mitzvah (commandment) of men..." (Isa.29:13, NKJV).

    Rendering the Fear of Yahweh Null and Void

    In other words, the theologies and traditions of men have rendered null and void the "fear of Yahweh" - it can only be known through the revelation of His Being through the Ruach haQodesh (Holy Spirit) through the application of divine principles. Moreover, this "fear of Elohim (God)" is taught in over a 100 places in Scripture, so it is not a little thing.

    How We Lose the Fear of Yahweh

    When we become flippant, casual or disrespectful in our prayer life before Yahweh, it is because we have lost this heavenly fear. When we lose it we are well on our way into the spirit of idolatry, and often without noticing it, because we lose it in small increments as we make daily compromises because of our fear of men. We at once forfeit spiritual power, divine ahavah (love) and self-discipline when we lose that fiery fear.

    Self-Discipline, Sound-Mindedness or Instruction?

    It is to be deeply regretted that not all English translations describe "self-discipline" as a fruit of fearing Yahweh. To its credit, the New International Version (NIV) does, and also a few others (NASU, NASB, MRCV, JNT/CJB), but most others use "a sound mind" (NKJV, KJV, RSTNE) or "instruction" (AENT, HRV), and whilst it is true that a sound mind will inevitably follow self-discipline, implying the reception of scriptural instruction, these do not occur without self-discipline - the descision to discipline oneself!

    The Discipline of the Figure Skater

    If you think about it carefully, this really is common sense. Let me give you some examples. I wonder if any of you have ever watched a couple figure-skating on ice? When you watch professionals and admire what looks like effortless grace and a seeming unplanned symmetry in motion, and admire the perfection and beauty of the dance, this is only the result of several hours' of practice each day year after year for many years. To dance on ice well requires total dedication to the art. It requires tremendous self-discipline and sacrifice.

    Cultivating the Gifts: Four Ground Rules

    Now I could, in principle, equally be describing a professional ballet dancer, soccer player, tennis player, or swimmer - the story is always the same. The identical self-discipline is required to be proficient in practically any sort of real achievement. Writers like myself, you might think, are just 'gifted'; and whilst every achievement relies a great deal on the gift that Yahweh bestows each individual, it does not come automatically. Gifts must be cultivated and it is up to the one endowed just how much that gift is developped. There are days, as my family will testify, when I feel completely uninspired! Like anything else, developing a gift requires practice. Rain or shine, inspired or not, in order to achieve anything you have simply got to force yourself to do it. But to do it well, it may be important to cut certain things out. Writers work best early in the morning as a rule and too many late nights can quickly make inroads into that fresh, early alertness. Painters move to where good teachers are, or where the light is clearest. Composers struggle at the keyboard for hours to get the combination of notes which rings true. No matter what it is you set out to achieve, you will find some basic ground rules t6hat are applicable to every discpline: you have got to:

    • 1. Get the conditions right;
    • 2. Take the time and trouble;
    • 3. Calculate the cost in the rest of your life; and
    • 4. Go on and on until, not quitting, you get to your goal.

    Yah'shua Taught the Same Truth

    So it should come as no surprise to learn that Yah'shua (Jesus) talked about going on and on too. He warned us not to put our hands to the plough to start a job and then to leave off or quit:

      "No one who puts his hand to the plow and looks back is fit for service in the kingdom of Elohim (God)" (Luke 9:62, NIV).

    Carefully Calculate the Cost of Discipleship

    In fact, He asks us to reackon or calculate the cost of discipleship before we start:

      "Now great multitudes went with Him. And He turned and said to them, If anyone comes to Me and does not hate his father and mother, wife and children, brothers and sisters, yes, and his own life also, he cannot be My talmid (disciple). And whoever does not bear his cross and come after Me cannot be My talmid (disciple). For which of you, intending to build a tower, does not sit down first and count the cost, whether he has enough to finish it -- lest, after he has laid the foundation, and is not able to finish, all who see it begin to mock him, saying, 'This man began to build and was not able to finish.' Or what king, going to make war against another king, does not sit down first and consider whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty thousand? Or else, while the other is still a great way off, he sends a delegation and asks conditions of peace. So likewise, whoever of you does not forsake all that he has cannot be My talmid (disciple)'" (Luke 14:25-33, NKJV).

    Whether as a minister or a witness it is our sacred responsibility to tell people to do this. To fail to do so is to deceive them.

    Grace is Free But Expensive

    I have told you all this so many times in the past but it bears repeating again and again because we so easily forget it: grace may be free but it is never cheap. We do well to always remember that. So, if we are going to take the Master seriously, then we must make an agreement to spend some time and trouble on Him. Praying, for example, takes time and effort, but Yahweh has given us a spirit of power and of ahavah (love) and of self-control. Any time and effort that we expend is only in response to the immeasurable effort and eternity beyond time that our Heavenly Father lavishes on us.

    Training is for Life

    Just as an athlete or author, dancer or musician, artist or tennis player, goes into training, so Paul likens the spiritual life to training (Acts 20:24). We are, he says, in a race, and the goal is our salvation. The training program for an athlete affects the whole of his life: how much he indulges himself; what he eats and when he sleeps; how often and how long he practices, practices, practices, pounding pavements (sidewalks), going round the park, timing himself, chipping away at the excess fat and the excess seconds. If you have never seen the movie, Chariots of Fire, then I highly recommend it because it illustrates well what the spiritual life consists of too.

    Training or Lack of It Affects All Areas of Our Life

    We too are to train ourselves and to understand that no one part of our life as a Christian or Messianic stands alone. Our training involves our entire life, just as an athlete's does, and whatever we do in one area affects our performance in all other areas. If a swimmer overeats before a race, at best he'll do badly, at worst he'll be in trouble with cramp. If a Christian or Messianic doesn't pay attention to the quality of his life outside prayer times, then at best he'll do badly in his prayer times, and at worst he'll be in real trouble, thrashing around in circles and going nowhere. So, let's look at the training schedule Scripture urges us to follow if we wish to pray well.

    Prayer's Training Schedule

    The very first condition is that we forgive others. It is only to the extent that we forgive that we open ourselves to the fogiveness of Elohim (God). He always longs to forgive, but we can so easily shut ourselves off from His restoring forgiveness. So, before we start to pray, we should check whether we are holding anything against anyone. Yah'shua (Jesus) taught that it is no use offering your gift to Yahweh until you are reconciled with your brother (Mt.5:23-24).

    It All Starts With Forgiveness

    In the prayer He taught as the basis for all prayer, we say:

      "...forgive us our sins, for we also forgive everyone who is indebted to us" (Luke 11:4, NKJV).

    It begins With Cultivating Poverty in Spirit

    It's simple: don't start to pray if you cannot forgive, because you can have no understanding of the immense generosity of your Heavenly Father otherwise. How can we, who have been forgiven so much and at such a price - the life and death of Yah'shua (Jesus) - hold out on our brothers and sisters? If we can hold out, then we are too rich for Yahweh. He cannot give to us because we have too much already, and we'll be allowed to hold on to our own wrongly-based self esteem, leaving Him free to pour His immeasurable riches onto the poor in spirit:

      "Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the kingdom of heaven" (Matt.5:3, NKJV; also Isa.57:15; 66:2).

    Blessedness is Never Passive!

    No wonder Yah'shua (Jesus) concluded that the woman who had been forgiven much and knew it, would love much. We cannot be reconciled with Elohim (God) if we refuse to be reconciled with one another. It's also important to understand what this word 'blessed' means - it does not mean the passive reception of Yahweh's approval! Rather, "blessedness results from the cultivation of certain attributes" [1] that Yahweh approves of. So we are back to self-discipline again.

    Unity with the Brethren

    What this means is that we can be united with our Heavenly Father only to the extent that we are willing to be united with each other. Yah'shua (Jesus) and His Father were echad or one (Jn.17), and Yah'shua (Jesus) sacrificed Himself for His brothers and sisters. The letter of Peter urges husbands to bestow honour on their wives "that your prayers may not be hindered" (1 Peter 3:7, NKJV).

    Completing the Torah

    Scripture takes it for granted that those who pray will be living lives in accordance with the Ten Commandments, that is to say, in accordance with the letter of the Torah (Law). But Yah'shua (Jesus) goes beyond the written letter of Torah (which is the heart of the Old Covenant) and urges us to take the next step by complying with the spirit of the Torah (Law) too (which is the heart of the New Covenant). Yah'shua (Jesus) led us to understand that we would not only be doing the 'do's' and 'don't's' of the Torah as a matter of self-discipline and habit but that we would go to the next level, drawn by the pull of the Ruach (Spirit), by concerning ourselves with the quality of our spiritual lives above and beyond, and get together with, the written Torah. That is what Yah'shua (Jesus) meant when he said He cad come to "fill up", "complete" or "fulfill" the Torah, not just to 'renew' it as the Messianics claim, and certainly not to abolish it as the Evangelicals claim!

      "Do not think that I have come to abolish the Torah or the Prophets. I have come to not to abolish but to complete" (Mt.5:17, JNT/CJB).

    Yah'shua's Listeners Were Torah-Obedient

    Modern Christians tend to forget that Yah'shua's (Jesus') listeners were already doing what they ought, unlike themseles, that is, obeying the written Torah. The written "letter" and the "spirit" are not opposed to one another, as Protestants would have you believe when they cite Paul who said:

      "He has made us competent as ministers of a new covenant - not of the letter but of the Ruach (Spirit); for the letter kills, but the Ruach (Spirit) gives life" (2 Cor.3:6, NIV).

    What is "the Letter" in 2 Corinthians 3:6?

    Paul is not, in any case, talking about the Torah when he refers to "the letter" here:

      "The "letter" and the "Spirit" are not opposites. In verse 1 Rav Shaul (Paul) begins by explaining how a "letter" in itself is not sufficient for his purposes, and how those in Corinth are not epistles written with ink, but in the Spirit of Elohim (God). The letter points out flaws. When we study the letter, sins of the weak flesh are exposed; our "natural" man is condemned to death to create a new birth according to YHWH's Spirit. Christian theology, however, teaches that the "letter" refers to Torah, and that Torah is contrary to the spiritual man, which is rather evil theology considering that mainstream Christians are already keeping over 60 per cent of Torah... Torah contains righteous directives of how to live and love, as well as the Covenant of promise that necessitates Mashiyach (Messiah). In this discourse Rav Shaul (Paul) is juxtaposing condemnation as a function of the letter; he is most certainly not discrediting the Torah of YHWH as it pertains to the Spiritual Man (Romans 7:14; 8:4). Torah is the Word of YHWH: "For it is not a vain thing for you; because it is your life: and through this WORD you shall prolong your days in the land" (Deuteronomy 32:47)" [2].

    The Adamic, Human Letter/Epistle is What Kills

    Let us be clear, then: it is not the written Torah that kills because it is the very Davar Elohim (Word of God), it is not the Torah that is at enmity with the Ruach (Spirit), but it is us, and in particular our corrupt hearts - the Adamic nature - that kills:

      "You yourselves are our letter, written on our hearts, known and read by everybody. You show that you are a letter from Messiah, the result of our ministry, written not with ink but with the Ruach (Spirit) of the living Elohim (God), not on tablets of stone but on tablets of human hearts" (2 Cor.3:2-3, NIV).

    The English Proverb That Confuses

    We are "the letter" or "epistle" and until we die to self, we will be at enmity with the Ruach (Spirit) and we will perish. A major part of the problem with this passage is that the Protestant re-interpretation of 2 Corinthians 3:6 has passed into proverbial use in the English language itself when we speak of the 'spirit of the law' verses the 'letter of the law'. It is hard to get past such a linguistic barrier no matter how hard we try to read the original sense that Paul used. How do you change a well established proverb? Not that the proverb is invalid - 2 Corinthians 3:6, which in part was responsible for the creation the proverb in the first place through faulty exegesis (interpretation), just doesn't fit with the original sense. This is part of the difficulty with unlearning what has become 'second sense' for many generations of believers. The false meaning is deeply programmed into us and it is reinforced everytime the proverb is used.

    The Evangelical Blasphemy

    To remind you once again of Ben Witherington's famous saying: "Text without a context is just a pretext to make it mean whatever you want it to mean". Therefore we must insist on exigetical rigour so as not to further a great evil, which is to accuse not only the Torah of being dead but Yahweh Himself of the same! What a blasphemy we unknowingly perpetuate when we uncritically accept the antinomian interpretations of the Reformers. So let us be clear: why the Greek word gramma most definitely can refer to an ordinary letter of the alphabet, it is also used in the sense of an epistle, as we do of the English word 'letter'. Therefore the context must reveal the apostle's true meaning, and that is clearly to a living, human gramma or epistle, not the letters of the Hebrew alphabet that make up the Torah.

    The Romantic Philosophers Corrupted the Evangelicals

    Amazingly, modern distinguished Pauline scholars like N.T.Wright understand clearly that this is the actual meaning of Paul yet do nothing to repent of their antinomianism:

      "The first clear sign that Paul is expounding the biblical idea of the 'new covenant' in 2 Corinthians 3 comes in verse 3. where he echoes Ezekiel's (Ezek.11:19; 36:26) repeated prophecy of a change of heart for God's people, removing the heart of stone from their flesh and giving them a heart of flesh:

        "It's quite plain that you are a letter from the Messiah, with us as the messengers - a letter not written with ink but with the spirit of the living God, not on tablets of stone but on the tables of beating hearts".

      "In the two relevant passages Ezekiel also speaks of giving the people 'a new heart [4] and a new spirit'. He contrasts the previous stony-hearted condition of God's people and the new condition in which, equipped with a new heart and a new spirit, they will be able to keep the Torah from the heart.

      "Paul develops this picture in an implicit dialogue with the description of the original giving of the law on Mount Sinai, telescoping together the 'tables of stone' in Exodus with the 'stony hearts' of Ezekiel. The ministry he has exercised in Corinth, he suggests, has fulfilled the prophetic promises by producing this new kind of 'letter', written with the spirit of the living God on the 'tablets' of fleshy, beating hearts. And they, the Corinthians, are the living proof of this fulfilment: You are a letter from the Messiah, with us as the messengers...

      "The phrase 'letter and spirit' has of course sent all kinds of hares bounding across the landscape of scholarship in modern times. A particular impetus was given this when the Romantic movement made a superficially similar distinction between 'letter and spirit' in terms of ouward form and inward feeling:

        "Mentally the Romantic prefers feeling to thought, more specifically, emotion to calculation, imagination to literal common sense, intuition to intellect... Non-philosophical Romanticism disdains ordinary rationality as a practical makeshift for the earth-bound, yielding only a truncated, superficial, and distorted picture of the world as it really is. The directly intuitive, even mystical, apprehension of the world which we owe to poets and other such creative geniuses does not stand in need of any reasoned support or articulation" [5].

      "Many have read Paul in that light, and have therefore inevitably misread him, since Paul, being born some time before Schelling or Coleridge, had not had the benefit of Romantic philosophy. Paul's distinction is quite different, as also from today's colloquial phrases 'the letter of the law' and 'the spirit of the law', where 'the spirit of the law' means, basically, that one can disobey what the law actually says because one is in tune with a different and higher principle. Even though Paul's phrase is at least partially responsible for that common way of speaking, it is not what he is talking about."

    The Folly of Ebionites and Evangelicals

    These are the words of an Anglican Bishop and leading Pauline scholar, not a Messianic and is the explanation, in major part, of the feeling-based 'gospel' of much of Protestantism and why it has gone off the spiritual rails. I have taken some time to underline the true meaning of Paul's words both to expose the folly of today's modern Ebionites and anti-Paulists who claim Paul was anti-Torah (when clearly he was not) and to expose the Romantic philosophy of Evangelical Protestantism that has so denigrated Paul's actual teaching about the Torah as to accuse Yahweh of being dead and evil. It decouples Torah from the heart, claiming that the 'spirit' has given them a higher, superior view of God that negates a substantial portion of what Yahweh has declared to be His eternal emet (truth). This is very much in line with the anti-patriarchal flow of contemporary Christianity, reflecting a feminine view of the Gospel decoupled from the male, a swing in the pendulum from ultra-patriarchy to ultra-matriarchy. It is the basis of modern existentialism and feminism and has led to all the perversions we now see. The Reformation is itself in need of both a new Reformation and a Restoration. This is why a restoration of the male-female ballance has to be effected, with male presiding according to divine tavnith (pattern), which is a major calling of this ministry and work.

    The Athlete's Kit

    With the emet (truth) clearly established on this matter, supported by the best scholarship in the field, we come to a vitally important point in understanding the true basis of an active, vital and Yahweh-honouring prayer life. As we have seen, failure to relate graciously, fully and with consideration in our relationships with one another will endanger our prayer lives. Prayer is primarily of the heart but it is not decoupled from the head and it is especially not decoupled from the written Torah, which is its pointer and reference. Scripture's devarim (words) on the relationship between prayer and our interactions and communication are another reminder to us that Yah'shua (Jesus) looks on the Davar (Word)-alligned heart. Outward moral correctness is only the athletic kit of the runner: his success is measured in the performance he turns in wearing the kit. Nevertheless, the 'kit' is important - it hasn't been 'abolished' or 'fulfilled'.

    Dying Produces a Harvest

    Which brings me to my last point today:

      "I tell you the emet (truth), unless a kernel of wheat falls to the ground and dies, it remains only a single seed. But if it dies, it produces many seeds. The man who loves his life will lose it, while the man who hates his life in this world will keep it for eternal life. Whoever serves Me must follow Me; and where I am, My servant also will be. My Father will honor the one who serves Me" (John 12:23-26, NIV).

    Yah'shua (Jesus) here talks about the seed dying, and from it, the abundant plant springing, the seed cannot check on its own transformation: it has to trust that something is happening as it goes into darkness. The plant grows, not by looking at itself, but by reaching in two directions:

    • 1. By reaching for the sun with growing stem and leaves, not knowing or understanding the transformations taking place within by the operation of the Ruach (Spirit); and
    • 2. By reaching down into the earth for water and dissolved minerals with growing roots. not knowing or understanding how these operate to effect the overall change which is a full salvation and sanctification - indeed, what's below ground is invisible anyway to what is above it.

    The Journey of Faith Upwards to Elohim

    On the one hand, in our prayer lives, we cannot dig up our experiences so far, and check on where we are, how much the plant is growing, and whether it is healthy or plagued by some disease. I say we cannot, but often there is a temptation to try, in order to alleviate our anxiety and to give us the security of a checklist. But grace - Yahweh's undeserved loving kindness - is free, not cheap, and what is free cannot be measured. The life of prayer is part of a life which looks to Elohim (God) as its judge and not its own estimation of its progress or lack of it, neither does it fear what men may be saying in their assessment of us. That is the equivalent of reaching up for the sun in our own lives. It depends entirely on emunah (faith) and His grace - Yahweh's unmerited favour. That is the heavenly journey like the plant journeying upwards into the sky.

    The Journey of Faith Downwards into the Written Torah

    On the other hand, we must also reach down into the bowels of the earth. We have to be rooted in solid physicality too, in the soil from whence comes other essential nutrients. And whilst the sun - Yahweh (Mal.4:2) - drives both operations - we, as living letters or epistles of Messiah, have our part in burrowing down and rooting ourselves into the earthiness of the written Torah. Both are spiritual activities even if one is earthbound and the other heavenbound. Both scripture study and prayer require considerable self-discipline - we cannot escape from it. One who chooses not to read is no different from the one who is blind, and one who chooses not pray is no different from the unbeliever who regards it as vain and foolish. A great deal of committment and work is required but the habits thus established bring forth those states of blessedness the Master speaks about in the Beattitudes.


    If we want our spiritual lives to be alive, dynamic and continuously growing in Yah'shua (Jesus), if we want to make our calling and election sure (2 Pet.1:10, KJV), if we want "the more sure word of prophecy" (1 Pet.1:19, KJV), we have to make the investment time and effort and sacrifice things dear to the flesh - not just short-term but for the rest of our lives. This is Derech or Way that Yah'shua speaks of that forms part of the "Derech (Way), the Emet (Truth) and the Chayim Life" that define the Master (John 14:6). It is the Derech (Way) of the talmid (disciples) who fears not the opinions and judgments of other men, which is the spirit of cowardice and timidity, but rather of of the one who fears Elohim (God) and is endowed with the spirit of power, and of ahavah (love) and of self-discipline. Coupled with the forgiveness of others sins against himself, it is what makes his prayers spring into life. And it is these things which will produce a bountiful harvest in him to the glory of his Elohim (God). Amen.


    [1] Tukunboh Adeyemo (ed.), Africa Bible Commentary (World Alive Publishers, Nairobi, Kenya: 2006), p.1143
    [2] Andrew Gabriel Roth, Aramaic English New Testament (Netzari Press, USA: 2012), p.540, footnote #8
    [3] N.T.Wright, Paul and the Faithfulness of God, Parts III and IV (SPCK, London: 2013), pp.981-2
    [4] Another one of the crimes of the Masoretes, those Talmudic Jewish scholars who sought to obfuscate messianc passages that otherwise clearly pointed to Yah'shua (Jesus) as the Messiah of Israel, was to change lev chadash ("new heart") into lev echad ("one heart") as in Ezekiel 18:31 and 36:26 so as to point away readers of the Tanakh (Old Testament) from the New Covenant
    [5] A. Quinton, 'Romanticism, Philosophical' in the Oxford Companion to Philosophy (OUP: 1995), p.778

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