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    234
    MARTIAL ARTS

    Are They Harmless?
    by Mike R. Taylor

    With all the attacks on innocent people on the streets of Britain today, don't you think that all women should learn Judo?

    Judo teachers generally agree that by using Judo alone, no woman would be able confidently to defend herself against attacks by men. For example, a 6-foot man would have hiy his victim long before she could get near enough to throw him. Only a large person who had done many years of training would find Judo an effective form of self-defence -- and then possibly against only one person.

    Additionally it must be borne in mind that involvement with Martial Arts, such as Judo, will inevitably involve the trainee in a subtle and far-reaching exposure to a whole philosophy, which will radically and perhaps even permanently subvert her view of reality. This philosophy leads ultimately to a destruction of her individuality. Therefore the individual should count the cost. Does she want to learn an effective method of self-defence? or does she want her view-of-life and even her personality subtly altered without her realizing what is happening?

    What is meant by the term "Martial Arts"?

    The word martial means "of warfare", "suitable for warfare or appropriate for warfare. The most popular Martial Arts are derived from techniques developed in Indian, Chinese, Korean, Okinawan, and Japanese combat and warfare. Indian boxing [1] is still practiced, though not widely. The Chinese forms are embraced by the terms Ch'uan-fa [2] or Kung-fu [3]. The Korean forms are known collectively as Taikwondo. The Japanese forms include Aikido, Karate, Judo, and many others.

    These are referred to as "Arts" because they are not merely combat-techniques but are also an expression of an Eastern "spiritual" philosophy. Eastern Martial Artists are in general agreed that boxing and wrestling are not true martial "Arts" unless they are allied to such a philosophy.


    You have referred to a particular philosophy which is supposed to underline Martial Arts. But most Martial Arts students are not exposed to any kind of philosophical teaching or training but simply to a variety of techniques which appear to be no more than physical and mental disciplines. What are you talking about when you say "philosophy"?


    The Martial Arts instrtctors who originally brought Martial Arts to the West generally accepted the idea that the physical universe somehow overlaps with the "spiritual world". Furthermore, they believed that this "spiritual world" could be contacted or channelled through the performance of particular repetitive physical and mental attitudes.

    As individuals practice these disciplines, such instructors would expect them to come into harmony with the supposed "laws" of this "spiritual" realm. That is to say, merely by practicing the disciplines, the trainee would find that his view-of-life as a whole would shift in a radical way.


    The idea that a "spiritual world" can be contacted through the performance of prescribed techniques is a typical characteristic of all occult philosophy, including Yoga, Toaism and, and Zen, upon which the Martial Arts are supposed to be based. All of these philosophies assume that the universe is itself "divine" and that this "divinity" also permeates and indwells each human being. One of the methods specified for contacting the supposed "divine element" within man is known in the West inaccurately as "meditation" or "contemplation" [4]. This involves stilling the thought-processes, and experiencing one of the range of altered states of consciousness essential to spirit-mediumship [5].

    The Eastern philosopher would justify this practice of "turning within" by saying that it enables us to contact and draw upon higher reaches of our nature. He claims that there are vast regions of our nature lying dormant within. Furthermore, it is supposed that all our problems can be solved merely by tapping into these latent resources.

    However, God teaches in the Bible that there is no "divine element" within man at all. Although it is true that man is sustained by God in his existence, he is still in substance serparate from God. Man was originally created to have a personal relationship with his Creator and eas never intended to be self-sufficient. Man's authority and power can, therefore, be derived only through a close dependence upon his Creator and never from any element or substance within himself.

    But some Martial Arts instructors teach only techniques and do not go into philosophy. Surely it is unlikely that their students will be influenced by any so-called "occult" philosophy?

    This sounds plausible at first hearing. However, it is wishful thinking. As has been stated already, the gateway to most occult philosophies and practices is itself practice. First, the student is instructed to follow his master or guru in an unquestioning absolute obedience. He is to suspend all judgments of conscience or intellect and to perform specific techniques. When he discovers that certain seemingly beneficial results immediately follow, he will be encouraged to try something further. All the time he is warned by his instructor and others of the danger of turning back.

    This general pattern has definute application to Martial Arts training. Although the novice is presented with what appear to be mere "techniques" or "operational procedures", the techniques are all parts of a whole. The parts are actually bridges designed to lead the individual to embrace a total system. Since the route to occult philosophy is through occult practice, there is no safety in ignorance of the philosophical background. It is not necessary for the underlying philosophy to be stated explicitly in order for the individual to come under its influence [6].

    Martial Arts seem to believe in a power called ki. Does this have anything to do with their belief in tapping latent resources within?.

    In the Martial Arts, ki or ch'i [7] is used to refer to a supposed "latent power" or "intrinsic energy" within man which can be "practiced" and "developed" by means of special techniques. These are certain stages essential to the practice of ki:

    • 1. Faith or belief in ki [8];
    • 2. Introduction by an instructor into the practice of "flowing ki" [9];
    • 3. Sinking ki. The student must learn to "sink" the ki to a place about 3 inches below the navel [10];
    • 4. Circulating ki. Having "sunk" ki the student can then learn to "send" the ki to the required part of his body [11].

    By the distribution of so-called ki to the appropriate parts of the body, the individual is able to resist weapon-blows of tremendous force without sustaining injuries or feeling pain. He is also able to project this power outside of his body to upset or injure his opponent.

  • If this claimed power is not latent within human beings, where does it come from?

    It feels to the Martial Artist as if he is in command of certain special powers. However, this is a deception. The truth is almost the exact reverse. The special powers are actually at the disposal of a force alien to the Martial Artist himself. Through constant usage or or co-operation with the supposed "internal energy" the Martial Artist actually places himself at the disposal of the alien force. Ultimately, therefore, these powers are not controlled by the Martial Artist. Rather he is controlled by an alien force which is the author of these strange powers.

    Since these powers are not the outworking of some elemtn inherent within the human organism itself, they must originate from some outside source. Even Jesus Himself, as perfect man, could not do miracles by human power. It is stated that "the power of the Lord" was present in order for Him to heal [12]. It is the same power that went out of Him [13].

    It was not a latent power. Jesus relied on the Holy Spirit sent from God in order to perform miracles [14]. There is no latent power within man which is capable of performing "miracles".

    The power involved in Martial Arts cannot be from God because His power cannot be "used" by us in the way in which ki appears to be "used" by Martial Artists. God does not give us any power to use as we please. He keeps the reins on His own power because His power is actually a part of Himself. God's power is manifested onloy as He wills and when He wills. It is true that he usually demands our obedient response before He works through us, but this is not always so. In any event He takes the initiative. We can never decide when God will work in any specified way. Additionally, all Divine miracles tend to draw attention to God and to confirm the truth of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.

    To summarize, so-called "latent power" is actually nit latent within human beings. Therefore, despite indoctrination to the contrary, there are no miraculous or seemingly "supernatural" powers lying dormant within us waiting to be tapped. Neither is it possible that the Holy God would allow His power to be used by Martial Artists as and when they require.

    So far you have stated where the power does not come from, but you have not stated where it comes from.

    As the power is neither latent within us not from God, there is only one remaining possibility. When Martial Artists do perform feats which actually go beyond the outer limits of their personal human capacity, the power comes from the only remaining available source. Only the devil and the demonic spirits which follow him are able to provide "supernatural" energy to enable man to continue successfully in his normal daily routine of opposition to God.

    These invisible things, which are responsible for whatever "supernatural" power may be found operative in Martial Arts, are also personal beings. This means that such power cannot be separated from the beings which author the powers. Anyone, therefore, whod esires or who seeks to utilize power from such a source is actually inviting the demon to exercise a greater control or influence in his life.

    These beings are quite capable of taking over the faculties of human beings in order to delude them into thinking that they can cultivate hitherto untapped powers and abilities when in fact the powers are really planted within the individual by alient beings. Although the "altered states of consciousness" which occur through passive-mind meditation and other occult techniques have a psychological component, many of these states are controlled ultimately by demonic manipulation of our physiology.

    Are you saying that whenever Martial Artists perfrom some extraordinary feat, the power involved must necessarily be from the devil?

    Undoubtedly certain feats performed by Martial Artists involve no occult element whatsoever. The Martial Arts training develops skills which enable the Martial Artists to exhibit a high degree of agility, strength, and accuracy at high speed. Anyone who drives a car knows that many of the judgments he is called upon to make rely upon an instantaneous assessment of a vast number of variable conditions. Precisely this skill is developed in Martial Arts in the context of assessing the capabilities and intentions of a possible opponent.

    The issues are complicated by our uncertainty as to the precise limitations of the human body. Indeed, one person's limitations may not be precisely the same as another's. One particular feat performed by person X may be naturally impossible for person Y. Therefore, what person X may be able to do quite naturally or after much training, person Y may never be capable of. If, therefore, person Y wished to perform a feat which he could never perform naturally, there are only two avenues open to him. The first way is to ask God for the ability do it. This may or may not be granted depending on whether God Himself wants that person to perform the feat in question at that particular moment. Or, secondly, person Y may seek for what he thinks of as a "special reserve of latent power" through a process of "meditation" or some other mental technique. In doing so he would be opening himself up to demonic power. In many instances it may be impossible for another person to tell what power is actually in operation without exercising spiritual discernment.

    Over and above this, there are Martial Arts techniques which cannot possibly be performed by anyone without the use of demonic power. Such a technique is the directing of ki at an opponent, or to lead the opponent to do what you want him to do, as is done in Aikido [15]. So-called "internal punching" is another instance. Rolf Clausnitzer was once punched from a distance of 9 inches by wing chun master, Wong Shun Leong, in Hong Kong. "Despite the protection of two cushions, the memory remains of an excruciating pain not unlike that of an electric shock" [16].

    Kung-fu expert Kah Wah Lee is reported to have rediscovered an ancient technique known as the "vibrating palm". Apparently Lee placed two pieces of half-inch-thick roofing-tiles under two boards, having sandwiched between them a cushion of tofu (soft bean-curd made into custard) about 3 inches thick. He applied his right hand to the board on top. The tiles chattered. Lee claimed that he converted his ch'i or ki into resonating vibrations by means of intense concentration. These were then transmitted through the tofu to the lower board and from there to the tiles, which were shattered by the resonance. It is said that it is possible to deliver a "delayed death-touch" to one's opponent by this means [17].

    Apart from such projections of "spiritual" power, there are numerous instances on record of other kinds of parapsychical events experienced by Martial Artists. Occasionally visions and appearances of departed Martial Artists are claimed. But more prolific are claims to so-called "Extra-Sensory Perception" which occurs in the combat situation.

    Highly respected karateka Gogen Yamaguchi has been nicknamed "The Cat" precisely because of his reputation for being able to estimate instantaneously what kind of attack is being made at any time. After engaging in a certain degree of ascetic training, he found that his approach to Karate had been modified. "I found I was able to move without thinking, in a natural and very mysterious way while I practiced. Moreover, I attained a perception and could quickly see things before they occurred. I could anticipate what was going to happen" [18]. This "ability" to anticipate was found useful in combating the moves of an opponent. Indeed, the aim of all true Martial Artists is to cultivate a "state of consciousness" known as zanshin or "total awareness". This state gives rise to parapsychical perception and an apparent mental detachment enabling the individual to respond automatically to each situation as it arises or even before it arises [19].

    All occult and mind-body disciplines utilize the twin concepts of "no-thought" [20] and "no-mind" [21] which involve a kind of "spontaneous" action in which intellect and conscience can be by-passed at will. The Martial Arts involve these ideas taken to their logical conclusion. The object of Aikido, for instance, "is to transform the most violent attack, by embracing it, into a dance" [22]. This concept of rhythm is involved in all Martial Arts. It is not considered violence if it can be transformed into an expression of this "cosmic rhythm". This "spontaneity" is achieved by the individual's harmony with the flow of ki or "cosmic power" which is supposed to take over in a Martial Arts encounter. This by-passing of intellect and conscience means that the individual ceases to regard himself as responsible for his actions as long as he operates in accordance with the flow of ki. In this was he is dehumanized [23].

    In all occult philosophies, including those on which Martial Arts are based, the individual is encouraged to cultivate a certain semi-passive state-of-mind which facilitates influence by demonic power. Certain Martial Arts are based on the principle of deliberate cultivation of such power. In other instances it would appear that such power takes over in the various situations without the student's necessarily being aware of what is happening [24].

    The Martial Artist, however, will usually feel as if he is actually in total control of these powers and able to exercise them according to his own will. Accordingly he will seek to explain such powers in terms of ki.

    What would you say to someone who said that they found is perfectly possible to practice ki despite their total rejection of occult philosophies such as Yoga, Taoism, and Zen?

    The whole concept of a latent power within man, such as ki, is allied to occult philosophy. Occultism always involves faith in something which is fundamentally untrue but which becomes apparently true for the person who believes it. Ki itself does not exist, but for the occultist who believes in its existence and acts in accordance with his beliefs, it appears to work for him. This is because the very spiritual beings which have deluded him into believing in the existence of ki also have enough spiritual power to cause things to happen in the physical world which appear to justify his "faith" in ki. He believes and it works. That is enough to prove to him the truth of what he believes. The occultist, having accepted error of this kind, is usually powerless to free himself from the delusion and will even show a manifest unwillingness to be set free. There is only one power in the universe more powerful than the author of his delusion and that is the Lord Jesus Christ Himself. He is able to set all people free upon their full repentance and renunciation of the occult. Permanent protection is gained only by a total submission to the Lord.

    The usual paths to occult experience involve "passive-mind meditation" and breathing-exercises of the yogic kind. It is significant that these practices actually have the effect of enhancing and accelerating the devlopment of ki. There is, therefore, a fundamental connection between occult philosophy and ki.

    It can be seen from this that although a person may claim to be practicing ki without embracing any form of occult philosophy, by his actions and experience he is actually demonstrating his own faith in the existence of ki and in this way contradicting his own claim. The very concept of ki would not work for him if he did not accept at least part of the very occult philosophy he claims to reject. As one Martial Artist has written:

      "...a skeptic will never learn to flow his energy because it takes 100% of believing in it before it works. A half-hearted student might as well not practice because he will never stilumate the ki if he doesn't really believe that he has this energy" [25].

    Is it possible to undertake Martial Arts training without practicing ki?

    It is difficult to understand why anyone would want to undergo Martial Arts training in the first place if he really wanted to avoid practising ki. Of course, not all Martial Arts involve the same degree of ki-training, as is recognized by all leading Martial Arts exponents. perhaps a person could practice Judo or certain forms of Karate for some time before coming under occult influence. However, since the very disciplines themselves are occult-based, such a person would inevitably tend to be led little-by-little into occult practice and philosophy.

    You have suggested that some Martial Arts are less occult-orientated than others. Is it not possible to use the Martial Artists' own assessment of the various "Arts" to discern where the occult emphasis is placed?

    It is true that Martial Arts are generally divided into two categories: "hard" and "soft", or "external" and "internal".

    The "hard" or "external" Martial Arts are said to involve a minimum of occultism and more of the heavy-duty training with toughening of muscles, together with practicing powerful blows with hands, arms, and feet. Athletic skill is also emphasized.

    "Sift" or "internal" Martial Arts such as Mushindo Karate, Aikido, and T'ai Chi Ch'uan [26] are much more concerned with mental discipline, meditation, and submission to occult power. The "softer" a Martial Art is, the more it is supposed to rely on the cultivation of so called "energy fields", and often correspondingly less emphasis is placed on hard physical training.

    At first sight it would appear that an individual could avoid the occult elements simply by adopting the training-programme of a "hard" school Martial Art. However, this is not as simple as it sounds. In many instances it is not easy to discern whether or how far a given technique is dependent upon occult power. Secondly, it is usually impossible for the novice to know what exactly is taught in the higher levels of instruction in any particular school.

    An example of a "hard" Martial Art is Shotokan Ryu Karate. But even in this school, the various techniques are allied to Toga-breathing and some Shotokan classes end regularly with five minutes Zen-type meditation. Additionally "secret" teachings are imparted to certain more advanced pupils. The kiai "yell", so characteristic of Japanese Karate, is said to issue ultimately from the Saika Tanden [27], 3 inches below the navel, which is where ki is supposed to have been concentrated. Indeed, all authentic Martial Arts schools appear to rely at some point upon the cultivation of ki.

    Yet another complication is the fact that some schools, like Gogen Yamaguchi's Goju Ryu Karate. actually combine a high degree of "hard" training with a high degree of "internal development" through meditation. Indeed the word goju itself means "hard-soft".

    But an individual may wish to practice certain of the techniques of Karate and Judo as an aid to self-defence without becoming involved in the occult side. So couldn't a discerning individual simply attend a class without embracing the occult elements?

    Is it possible for any individual to be absolutely sure that he has the kind of discernment necessary to enter this kind of situation and make the infallible judgments required? he would have to be absolutely certain that he really could discern in each situation and at all times exactly where the line is between what is natural and what is occult.

    Although it is possible to practice certain Martial Arts techniques in isolation from any underlying occult philosophy, it would be practically impossible to do this in the context of a Martial Arts class.

    Nearly all Martial Arts instructors assume occult practice as an integral part of their discipline. Therefore, they would see no need to attempt any clear seperation of these elements from possible non-occult aspects. Even Bruce Tegner, whom Martial Artists tend to despise for his eclectic and highly westernized approach, recommends Yoga-breathing in his book on karate [28].

    Secondly, any individual attending Martial Arts classes, even if able to discern clearly which activities or techniques were occult and which were not, would not be permitted to continue with the class if he kept refusing to do certain things. The best instructors are tough disciplinarians. Woe betide anyone who tried to resist their leadership in the class-situation! Additionally, the psychological pressure of the body of students is very strong and not to be underestimated.

    Therefore I would never recommend the practice of attending Martial Arts classes with the object of extracting useful self-defence techniques.

    What then would you suggest for someone who would like to learn effective self-defence techniques?

    Judo instructors recommend the preliminary use of hand-and-foot blows [29] to deal with an enemy attack before Judo-throws are attempted. The object of this is to weaken the opponent before attempting to throw him. Hand-and-foot blows could theoretically be learned by anyone without learning the whole Judo rigmarole.

    However, the issue is not quite as simple as that. An attacker always has the advantage. First, he has the initiative in the attack-situation. Secondly, he would not attempt to attack unless he first felt equipped to do so in some way, whereas the victim may be taken completely by surprise. Apart from the possibility that he may be carrying a weapon, he is quite likely to be fight-hardened. The person who is threatened, on the other hand, is unlikely to have cultivated the automatic response necessary to respond accurately and precisely in a surprise situation. Also an unnecessarily aggressive response may escalate the level of violence in a saituation rather than diffuse it. There are classes on self-defence which appear to be free of an emphasis on Martial Arts, though they do make use of certain Martial Arts techniques. The object of such classes should be to concentrate on those techniques which are relevant and appropriate to any self-defence situation. British alw allows the use of only just enough force to repel and aggressor.

    Today there is a growing recognition of the fact that Martial Arts are not the answer to the self-defence problem in our increasingly violent society. Francesca Simon, after undertaking a survey of self-defence classes, wrote: "Self-defence isn't a martial art" [30]. She interviewed Mike Flinn, an ex-policeman and Martial Artist, who runs classes which aim to be tailor-made for actual self-defence. He said: "The important part of self-defence isn't the confrontation. You need to learn how to prevent a situation occurring in the first place (good home security, changing your body language so that unlike Soap's Jessica Tate you don't look like a victim), and how to defuse a situation before it becomes violent" [30]. "Actual confrontation is, I believe, only 20% of the whole self-defence posture" [31]. A pre-meditated decision as to what course of action a woman should adopt if approached by a strange man, or worried by a kerb-crawler, will often be all that is required to extricate herself from a possibly dangerous situation.

    If you are a Christian and regard the Lord as your very present help in trouble, you will obviously bring the problem of self-defence to Him. As you ask Him to renew your thinking on the subject you will find your attituides revolutionized as your thinking becomes more conformed to God's. Regarding this particular attack-situation, in the split-second following an initial threat, the Christian will cry out to his Heavenly Father for help. This help often comes in a quite unexpected way. Calmness is very important and it is often possible to "disarm" the aggressor with a wise and fearless word.

    Those who feel it would be helpful, and have the opportunity, to take a short course in self-defence, should watch the following points in order to avoid being unwittingly drawn into or indoctrinated by occult philosophy:

    • Avoid an class which teaches breathing exercises;

    • Avoid any class which teaches "meditation";

    • Avoid any class which teaches "Eastern philosophy". American 5th Dan Master Instructor Bob Miller initiates boys as young as 5-year-old into his own free-style version of Hapkido, which is a Korean Martial Art similar to "soft"-style Karate. He has stated: "While I teach them on a physical level, I throw philosophy at them" [32];

    • Avoid any class which claims to utilize "latent power", for example, by encouraging students to develop their "inner potential" or "spiritual potential";

    • Avoid any class which claims to give specific training to achieve "calmness of mind" or "equanimity", which is usually a euphemism for training in the cultivation of occult passivity;

    • Avoid any class which claims to teach a particular school, system, or type of "Martial Art", such as Wu Shu, Karate, Ju-jitsu, Spirit Combat, Feng-sao, or anything ending in -do (e.g. Judo, Yudo, Iaido, Aikido, etc.), as all refer to "Martial Arts";

    • Avoid any class in which the leaders are secretive and reluctant to discuss special techniques, reserving such discussions only for advanced grades;

    Having established that a class does not seem to be a vehicle for eventual initiation into Eastern philosophy, you should then check the following positive points. The class in question should pass on all and not just some of these points.

    The class should actually be called "self-defence classes" and described as such. Such a description should warrant no further qualification or small print.

    The classes should be purely pragmatically geared to this end. Every technique taught should be directly relevant to self-defence.

    Additionally, self-defence should be the actual aim of the classes and not a mere side-benefit of a system which is geared to some other end.

    The classes should teach specific techniques for coping with specific situations and should not claim to teach a total integral system, which is said to be "complete" in itself.

    In addition to the spiritual points mentioned above, two other points need to be watched. The classes should refuse to advocate unnecessary brutality, for example: stabbing of fingers into the eyes of an attacker, and so forth. A recent article in the Daily Mail said: "Staff at marks and Spencers, traditionally chosen for their charming manners and general helpfulness, are being trained "to be angry and show hate". More than 30,000 of them are being given a lesson inb personal safety...It includes a film where a shop girl is seen poking an attacker in the eyes, winding him with her elbow and grinding the heel of her shoe into his foot" [33].

    In fact, any technique which dehumaizes your attacker is best avoided. Your attacker is not just a "thing" but a human being like yourself, although admittedly with problems of a special kind. Techniques involving over-reaction and escalation of aggression must be classed as "violent" and should therefore be avoided. Indeed, some such techniques could actually incite the attacker to great aggression. "Good self-defence classes emphasise that actually fighting one's way out of a situation should be seen as a last resort, and only then by using a "non-escalative technique" - i.e. a means to get a woman away from her attacker fast without provoking him to further aggression" [34]. Brutal techniques are not truly defensive at all but are are rather relatiatory in the worst sense of the word.

    The classes should also give you a realistic assessment of your ability to defend yourself. They should not give you a false sense of security, which is, unfortunately, what most classes seem to do. Students of such classes tend to come out feeling that they will henceforth be able to go anywhere at any time and successfully fend off all attackers. For example, Marks and Spencers staff were said to "feel more confident and able to cope with a potential mugger or rapist" [35].

    Apart from the necessity of lengthy and arduous training to make true self-defence work properly, it is unlikely that any self-defence course will enable an individual to defend himself against a whole gang. Indeed, a point which is often forgotten is that the more individuals take up self-defence training the more likely it is that muggers and others will actually form themselves into gangs to deal with potential victims who are so trained. Neither is there known to be any complete self-defence against arms. Tony Reay, the Britisg Judo Association's development officer "believes there's no complete self-defence against weaponry" [36].

    As has already been intimated, for true self-defence to work successfully, constant practice and training are necessary. There are no short-cuts. The problem with most so-called self-defence classes is that they claim to offer quick and easy solutions.

    However, the only real answer to the problems of violence in our society is to submit ourselves to the living God. He arranges the circumstances and events in everyone's life. Therefore he commands us to submit ourselves wholly to His authority and kingship. Provided we do this, our mighty Creator will be on our side to look after and protect us.

    "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to Me"
    (Jesus Christ) [37]

    FOOTNOTES

    [1] Vadha
    [2] Now spelt Cjun-fa or Qun-fa
    [3] Now spelt Gon-gu or Gong-fu
    [4] (a) "Wherever you dip below the surface of Judo - and indeed all the martial arts - you come across Zen. So, first let us try to define the term. Zen translates as "meditation" in Japanese. And meditation is one method of achieving self-realization. There are others but this particular one was developed first in China and then Japan and it was based on what the Buddha, who lived in India, had taught. Its most important precept is the necessity of meditation.
    "Unfortunately, there is a great deal of rubbish talked about meditation, which is not some weird oriental trick but a perfectly sensible method of first concentrating and then clearing the mind to bring it under the control of the will. By continuous practice of meditation - which I might add is very hard work indeed - we eventually break through our self-created ignorance and experience enlightenment, or satori or samadhi as the Indians call it" (Judo: David White, in Martial Arts of the Orient: ed. Bryn Williams (Hamlyn, 1975), p.102).
    (b) "...meditation is only a part of Zen training. Living in accord with the high principles set down by Buddha, using your intelligence and courage as well as having a fair helping of patience and forebearance also matter" (Ibid., p.103).
    [5] During the lifetime of Confucius (in the 6th century) there were hermits who retirned from the world, and lived a simple contemplative life; and it was among these men that Taoism grew up. There was a certain basis for the practice of contemplation in the traditions of ancient China. The central feature of Chinese religion was the sacrifice offered to the ancestral spirits. In the sacrifice a prominent part was played by the shih or medium, in whom, it was believed, the spirit of the ancestor to whom the sacrifice was made came temporarily to dwell. In course of time the belief arose that the spirit might be induced to remain permanently in a man. The heart must be cleansed so as to make a fit home for the spirit; outer activities and emotions must be stilled. Thus there grew up the practice known as tso-wang, "sitting with a blank mind" (or "in forgetfulness"), comparable to the Indian Yoga of dhyana. In China, as in India, breath-control was adopted as a means of inducing this condition. In the fourth and third centuries there were many who taught and practiced inner stillness, and who claimed by this means to attain knowledge of the Transcendent" (Mysticism in World Religions: Sidney Spencer (Pelican, 1963), p.97).
    [6] "There is no doubt in my mind that the nest judoka - and not necessarily the most successful or the toughest - understand something of Zen and practice meditation even if they don't realize they are doing so" (Judo: David White, in Martial Arts of the Orient, ed. Bryn Williams (Hamlyn, 1975), pp.102-3).
    [7] Ki is a Japanese word that can mean: air, atmosphere, heart, mind, spirit, feelings, humour, will, or even an intention (Sanseido's Daily Concise Japanese-English Dictionary (revised edition, Sanseido Co. Ltd., 1968), p.109).
    According to Glen St. John Barclay, "Ki for example can mean also "spirit" in the sense of how a man feels, e.g. "in good spirit"; it can also, and perhaps most obscurely mean the original chaos, by the setting of dust of which the physical universe is supposed to have been created; and finally it has been used to mean "spirit" in the sense of "breath" (Mind Over Matter: Beyond the Bounds of Nature (Pan 1975), pp.55-56). In the context of Martial Arts it is used to embrace the manifestations of power which derive from occult sources.
    The Chinese term for this is ch'i (cji, qi) which includes all these meanings but also embraces an even wider range of meanings than its Japanese equivalent.
    [8] The "Ki" in Aikido: Mitch Stom, in Black Belt 1969 Yearbook, pp. 18,20.
    [9] Ibid., p.18
    [10] (a) Acupuncture: Can It Really Develop the Ch'i? John Wheaton, B.Ac., M.Ac., in Black Belt (12/1971), p.28
    (b) The "Chi" in T'ai Chi Ch'uan: Daniel Lee, in Black Belt 1969 Yearbook, p.33 [11] (a) The "Chi" in T'ai Chi Ch'uan: Daniel Lee, in Black Belt 1969 Yearbook, p.34
    (b)Science Looks at the "Ki": Beryl Bender, in Karate Illustrated (1/1973), p.27
    (c) Mind Over Matter: Beyond the Bounds of Nature: Glen St. John Barclay (Pan, 1975), p.93
    [12] Luke 5:17
    [13] Mark 5:30; Luke 8:46
    [14] Matthew 12:28; Acts 10:38; Luke 4:18-19; John 3:34
    [15] The "Ki" in Aikido: Mitch Stom, in Black Belt 1969 Yearbook, p.20
    A quotation concerning the directing of ki by aikidoka Toichi Tohei is also contained in the same article: "He placed his hand about six inches in front of my face and slowly moved it away from my face. I found myself being drawn into the palm of his hand as if it had some magnetic power. Then, he changed the direction of his hand so his fingers were facing upward and I felt my head being tilted backward. The sensation was different. I had mixed feelings. My stomach felt queasy and, yet, I was stunned by experiencing this compelling force coming from a human hand" (Ibid., p.18).
    [16] Quoted in Mind Over Matter: Glen Barclay, p.78
    [17] Do You Dare Doubt The Vibrating Palm? reported by Teoh Hood Eng, Black Belt's Malaysian correspondent, in Black Belt , Vol.10, No.2 (2/1972), pp.52-53. This was also referred to in Mind Over Matter: Glen Barclay, p.65
    [18] Emperor of the Empty Hand: Lloyd Williamsen, in Black belt 1969 Yearbook, p.59
    [19] "One feature common to all the martial arts is the state of zanshin or total awareness which practitioners endeavour to cultivate. This is not a state that is achieved through an intellectual analysis of environment but rather one that, through experience, evolves naturally and instinctively. By an intense and intuitive use of the senses some exponents seem to achieve a state of awareness that almost suggests a sixth sense. This is the awareness of, and involvement, environment for which Zen practitioners aim. It produces an intriguing calmness of mind and an apparent detachment even in threatening situations when fear or anger might seem the natural reaction" (Introduction: Bryn Williams, in Martial Arts of the Orient: ed. Bryn Williams (Hamlyn, 1975), p.12)
    [20] In Chinese this is called wu-nien (w-nin). The Japanese term for this is a Japanese rendering of precisely the same word. This is munen and means "freedom from all thoughts" (Sanseido's Daily Concise Japanese-English Dictionary (revised ed., Sanseido Cp. Ltd.m 1968), p.498).
    [21] In Chinese this is called wu-shin (w-xin). The Japanese equivalent is musin. The Chinese word hsin (xin) means in this context: Heart, mind, feeling, or intention (The Pinyin Chinese-English Dictionary: ed. Prof. Wu Jingrong (Pitmans 1980, p.765). Wu-hsin therefore means a state of being apparently "without heart, mind, feeling, or intention". In this state the persone xperiencing the state is unaware of these sensations by being seemingly detached from them. This is equivalent to the state of wu-nien (w-nin). Nien (nin) means "thought" or "idea". The state of wu-nien is therefore a state of apparent thoughtlessness. In other words, it is the "blank mind" or "mentyally passive" state which is the key to all occult practices.
    [22] The Silent Pulse: A Search for the Perfect Pulse that Exists in Each of Us: George leonard (Wildwood House, 1979), p.98
    [23] "An expert reacts not in a personalized way but almost like an applied natural law - the lighning strikes so the thunder sounds, the wind blows so the tree bends, the attack comes, the response is automatic" (Introduction: Bryn Williams, in Martial Arts of the Orient: ed. Bryn Williams (Hamlyn, 1975), p.12)
    [24] The Silent Pulse: George leonard, pp.97-99
    [25] The "Ki" in Aikido: Mitch Stom, in Black belt 1969 Yearbook, p.18
    [26] Now spelt Tizjicjun, or Tijqun
    [27] Saika Tanden, or more popularly Sitahara, is the Japanese name for the Chinese term Tan-t'ien, now spelt Dam-tin. Meyer H. Parry has explained this as a "Lower abdominal region important for deep breathing in Bujutsu" (A BAsic Glossary of Bujutsu, p. 137. See also p.153). Bujutsu, or Bujucu, refers the whole range of techniques used in Japanese military or martial affairs
    [28] Karate: Self-Defence and Sport: Bruce Tegner (Mayflower-Dell, 1963), pp.88-89
    [29] Atemiwaza
    [30] Cowboy Self-Defence, in Over 21 (2/1982), p.54 [31] Mike Finn, quoted in Self Defebnce Means No Offence, in Sunday Times Magazine (Sunday 2/5/82), p.17
    [32] Quoted in When Eastern Philosophy Fulfil's the Western World's Television Fantasy: Gloria Tessler, in The Daily Telegraph (Thursday 11/3/82), p.17
    [33] Why Marks Staff are Taught to Attack: Diana Hutchinson, in Daily Mail (Wednesday 21/4/82), p.11
    [34] (a) Self-Defence Means No Offence, in Sunday Times Magazine (Sunday, 2/5/82), p.66
    (b) "Good classes put the accent on preventative measures; retaliatory teachniques only if unavoidable, within yhe framework of the law" (Ibid., p.69)
    [35] See Footnote #32
    [36] Eastern Philosophy Fulfils the Western World's Television Fantasy: Gloria Tessler, in The Daily Teegraph (Thursday 11/3/82), p.17
    [37] Matthew 28:18

    Copies of this booklet may be purchased from:

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    This page was created on 24 May 1999
    Last updated on 24 May 1999

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